India's efforts to rein in population growth have been described as the most draconian after China. Birth rates have fallen in recent decades, but population growth is still among the world's fastest.

The world's top sterilizer of women, India came under global scrutiny for its sterilization drive last November when 15 women died and scores of others were hospitalized after surgery at a sterilization camp in the eastern state of Chhattisgarh.

Investigations found the deaths in Bilaspur district were due to unhygienic conditions, dirty medical instruments and equipment and an overall lack of care for the patients who were poor tribal and low-caste women.

Authorities have since put in place guidelines and are training local health workers on conducting safe and sanitary surgeries, based on findings of a PFI study into the deaths, but incentivized, target-driven sterilization continues.

Doctors, nurses and health workers receive cash incentives for promoting and carrying out sterilizations. Patients are also given compensation - ranging from 600 rupees to 1,100 rupees for tubectomies and vasectomies respectively.

Poonam Muttreja, executive director of the Population Foundation of India (PFI), said an analysis of the national family planning program's budget for 2013/14 found that 3.4 billion rupees ($53 million) out of a total 4 billion rupees ($63 million) was spent on female sterilization.

"There is a total emphasis on sterilization in India. Eighty-five percent of the expenditure for family planning is on incentives for sterilization, 13.5 percent is on equipment and salaries, and just 1.5 percent is on other forms of contraception," said Muttreja.