Both the items have shown an increase from 2004-05, when only a quarter of households in villages had TVs and less than 5 percent owned refrigerators.

In contrast, about 56 percent families in cities didn't have refrigerators in 2011-12, which is no longer considered a luxury item, while 80 percent households had TVs.

"Refrigerators were possessed by 43.8 percent urban households in 2011-12 compared to 31.9 percent in 2004-05," as per National Sample Survey Organization’s 68th Round Survey of Household Consumption of Various Goods and Services in India.

On the other hand, just 9.4 percent of families in villages had refrigerators in 2011-12, compared to 4.4 percent such households in 2004-05.

Besides, nearly half the households in villages had TVs in 2011-12, compared to 26 percent in 2004-05. In cities around 80 percent families had television compared to 66 percent in 2004-05.

As for the food items, the survey revealed that rice consumption per person per month in villages fell to 5.98 kg in 2011-12, compared to 6.38 kg in 2004-05. In cities, the fall in rice consumption was from 4.71 kg to 4.49 kg.

It showed however that per capita consumption of PDS rice doubled in rural India, and has risen 66 percent in cities since 2004-05, implying that the share of PDS purchases in rice consumption has risen substantially.

Per capita consumption of wheat in 2011-12 showed a slight rise since 2004-05 of about 0.1 kg per person per month in rural areas, and a fall of 0.35 kg in urban areas.

As in case of rice, the share of PDS purchase in wheat consumption has increased considerably, with per capita consumption of PDS wheat having more than doubled since 2004-05 in both sectors.

As for other items, according to the survey, 63.5 percent families in the villages had electric fans, while the proportion of such households was 92.7 percent in cities in 2011-12.

In villages, 57.1 percent families had bicycles in 2011-12, while the percentage of such households in cities was 38.6 percent.

The proportion of rural households with motorcycles or scooters more than doubled in the 7 years prior to 2011-12 from 7.7 percent to 18.4 percent, while in the urban sector the proportion increased from 26 percent to 38 percent.

About two percent of the families in villages had motor car or jeep in 2011-12, whereas the percentage of such households was 8 percent in cities.

(Agencies)

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