Victory saw Australia take a 1-0 lead in the five-match series following Friday's washout in Leeds on the ground where they suffered a 4-0 ODI campaign loss to England last year. (Agencies)
Australia captain Clarke's 105, only his eighth hundred in 229 matches at this level, was the cornerstone of a total of 315 for seven and came after he'd made 187 at Old Trafford in the drawn third Test against England last month.
Man-of-the-match Clarke received good support from vice-captain George Bailey (82) in a fifth-wicket stand of 155 as Australia made their highest one-day international score against England in England, surpassing their 302 for six at Nottingham's Trent Bridge in 2009.
England, having only twice before made more than 300 to win an ODI, slumped to nine for two as Mitchell Johnson took two wickets in three deliveries and were dismissed for 227 with 34 balls to spare.
"It's nice to get a win and it's a good start to this series for us," said Clarke at the presentation ceremony.
"To make over 300 was a really good score and all our bowlers executed," Clarke said.
He added: "I'd like to play the next three one-dayers and every Test at Manchester, it's a nice batting wicket."
Earlier, Ashes-winners England -- resting James Anderson, Stuart Broad and Graeme Swann ahead of the return series 'Down Under' starting in November -- appeared to be at least one bowler 'light'.
However, stand-in England captain Eoin Morgan said: "I don't think we were a bowler short... I'm not concerned by the balance of the side."
Australia seemed set for a total well in excess of 300 but former Ireland paceman Boyd Rankin (two for 49) checked Australia's progress with two wickets in two balls including that of Clarke.
But the tourists made a determined effort to get after the often economical James Tredwell and the off-spinner's eight overs cost an expensive 60 runs.
Victory saw Australia take a 1-0 lead in the five-match series following Friday's washout in Leeds on the ground where they suffered a 4-0 ODI campaign loss to England last year.