Patna: Here’s a piece of good news for party lovers. Although people across the globe celebrate New Year on January 1, this auspicious day comes several times in a year as there are about 100 calendars across the world which people still follow. And out of this, 50 exist in India. A  list of the prominent calendars followed by the people.

Gregorian calendar

The New Year celebration on January 1 is based on the Gregorian calendar. Its origin can be traced to Roman calendar. The traditional Roman calendar starts from March 1.
Roman King Julius Caesar added the month of July in it. Later August was also added in the memory of his nephew.

The calendar which is followed worldwide now-a-days was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII in1582. Gregory had made a provision of Leap Year in it.

However Eastern Orthodox, another sect of Christian, does not recognize the Gregorian calendar. It still believes in traditional Roman calendar. As per the calendar, the New Year is celebrated on January 14. It is followed in countries like Russia, Jerusalem, Serbia and Georgia.

Islamic Calendar

According to Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri calendar, New Year is celebrated on the very first day of the month of Muḥarram. The 10th day of Muharram is known as the Ashura. Prophet Mohammad’s grandson Imam Hussain was martyred at Karbala near Baghdad on the same day.

Hijri calendar was prepared before the battle of Karbala. Significantly, the days have not been accommodated on the basis of variation of the moon’s motion. Therefore Islamic month fluctuates by 10 days each year.

Chinese Calendar

China has its own calendar. Here, New Year is celebrated with the first appearance of the year’s new moon. It is called Yuan Ten. It falls between January, 21and February, 21.

The Chinese years have been named after 12 animals. The same criteria has been followed in Chinese astrology.

Indian Calendar

India has about 50 calendars including Vikram Samvat, Shaka Samvat, Hijri Samvat, Fasli Samvat, Bangla Samvat, Buddha samvat, Jain Samvat, Khalsa Samvat, Tamil Samvat,

Malyalam Samvat and Telugu Samvat. All have their own New Years.

Vikrama Samvat and Shaka Samvat are the most commonly followed calendars in India.

Vikrama Samvat was founded by emperor Vikramaditya of Ujjain following his victory over the Sakas in 56 BC.

In Northern India, the calendar starts with the first day after the new moon in the month Chaitra, which usually falls in March/April according to the Gregorian calendar.

Again in Western India, the same era begins with the first day after the new moon in the month of Kartika which usually falls in October/November.

Emperor Kanishka established the Saka era in the year 78 AD.  It is also known as Shalivahana Saka.

In post independence era, India adopted it as the national calendar. The New Year of national calendar falls on March 22 while in a Leap Year it falls on March 21.

JPN/Bureau