Electronic cigarettes, known by a variety of names including vapour pens, are battery-powered devices that heat nicotine and flavourings to deliver an aerosol inhaled by the user.
The studies included smokers who both were and were not interested in quitting, and included people as young as 15 years old.
The studies included in the analysis controlled for many variables, including demographics, past attempts to quit, and level of nicotine dependence.
The findings were published in the journal The Lancet Respiratory Medicine.

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