Root, the Ashes player of the series after his 460 runs played a central role in England's 3-2 win over the five Tests, has been a key player in all three international formats in recent times.
But with England facing tough Test series away to Pakistan and South Africa later this year, England's selectors have decided to give the 24-year-old a break from international duty.
Also omitted are senior bowlers James Anderson, currently out with a side strain, and Stuart Broad, whose stunning eight for 15 at his Trent Bridge home ground saw Australia skittled out for 60 in the third Ashes Test.

Neither Anderson nor Broad have played a 50-over one-day international since this year's World Cup, which Australia won on home soil.
Test skipper Alastair Cook, dropped from England's squad before the global showpiece, was again omitted from white-ball duty.
Eoin Morgan will again captain both squads, having led England in their miserable first-round exit from the World Cup before overseeing a thrilling one-day series win at home to World Cup finalists New Zealand.
Essex left-arm seamer Reece Topley was the only uncapped player in either squad after being named in the Twenty20 party only.
Moeen Ali was restored to both squads after being injured at the start of the season, with fit-again fellow all-rounder Chris Woakes also selected.
But there was no place for Yorkshire wicketkeeper batsman Jonny Bairstow even though he revived his international career with a series-clinching 83 not out against New Zealand at Chester-le-Street in June.
"We have made some significant progress in our limited-overs cricket this summer, and the next six games allow these players to continue testing themselves against one of the very best sides in the world," said England national selector James Whitaker.
"This is primarily a young group of players, and the next three weeks will provide them with valuable experience as we continue to identify those who can take our limited-overs cricket forward over the next four years."

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