Google DeepMind's AlphaGo beat the reigning three-time European Go champion Fan Hui - who has devoted his life to the game since the age of 12 - five games to nil in October last year in London.
The first game mastered by a computer was noughts and crosses (also known as tic-tac-toe) in 1952. In 1997, IBM's Deep Blue computer famously beat Garry Kasparov at chess.
But to date, Go has thwarted artificial intelligence (AI) researchers; computers still only play Go as well as amateurs. The game involves players taking turns to place black or white stones on a board, trying to capture the opponent's stones or surround empty space to make points of territory.
However, as simple as the rules are, Go is a game of profound complexity. Invented in China over 2,500 years ago, Go is played by more than 40 million people worldwide. The number of possible positions in the games are more than the number of atoms in the universe.