The findings published in the journal PLoS Pathogens stress the importance of routine HIV testing to catch the infection as early as possible to allow the prompt initiation antiretroviral therapy."One-third of people not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) to control their HIV will eventually develop HIV-associated dementia," said researcher Ronald Swanstrom, director, Center for AIDS Research (CFAR), University of North Carolina in the US.The study followed 72 participants during the first two years of HIV infection.

The participants were not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) to control their HIV at the time of the study.Through analysis of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples, 20 percent of the participants showed replication in the central nervous system (CNS) at four months.

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