The history of Goan politics dates back to first assembly election of the union territory of Goa, Daman and Diu in 1963 for a 30-member house.  Goa, Daman and Diu Reorganization Act, 1987 paved the way for the creation of Goa as a separate state in 1987. But instability of a series of state governments since the new state was formed is a stark reality of the state politics.

Both the national and regional parties came to power in the state but the state witnessed 15 Chief Ministers during 1990 to 2005. That means a Chief Minister was changed in the duration of a year. BJP leader Manohar Parrikar was the first Chief Minister in the last one and a half decade of the state politics to lead a government for little less than five years from 2000 to 2005, barring a gap of over three months from February to June 2002.

Parrikar stepped down in February 2005 when his government was reduced to minority owing to some MLAs defecting from BJP. Incumbent Chief Minister Digambar Kamat has successfully run a Congress government in the state for a complete five years term during 2007 to 2012. Here’s a glimpse of the political scenario in the state of Goa which goes to poll on March 3.
Politics over merging Goa with Maharashtra

The first assembly elections in Goa were held in 1963. Dayanand Bandodkar (Bhau) from Maharashtra Gomantak Party (MGP) won the elections and became first Chief Minister of the state. Being the ruling party the MGP decided to merge Goa with the neighbouring Maharashtra. 

Historical opinion poll
Indira Gandhi-led government at the Centre conducted a historic opinion poll on January 16, 1967. There were two options offered to the people-first to retain Goa as a Union Territory and secondly to merge Goa with neighbouring state of Maharastra and the erstwhile Portugese colonies of Daman and Diu into the neighbouring state of Gujarat.
The unanimous opinion of the people was to retain Goa’s identity and Goa, Daman and Diu continued to exist till 1987 as a union territory.

MG party’s dominance over Goa

Despite MG’s failure in the opinion polls which favoured for merger of Goa with Maharashtra, the party consecutively swept the assembly elections in 1964, 1967 and 1972. Dayanand Bandodkar remained in power until his death in 1973. Subsequently, his daughter Shashikala Kakodhar was elected as the Chief Minister in 1973. She served as state Chief Minister until April 1979.
Congress’ fist victory.

With the end of Kakodhar’s rule in April 1979, President’s rule was imposed in Goa. It continued till December 1979 until the fifth assembly election was held. It was for the first time that the Maharashtra Gomantak Party (MGP) tasted defeat and the national party- the Congress- came to power. Pratap Singh Rane became Chief Minister of the UT. Scion of the Rane family of Sattari won the sixth assembly election in 1985 and again led government till1990.

Political instability in Goa
By 1990 the political uncertainty affected Goan politics. From 1990-94 seven Chief Ministers were replaced. It includes Pratap Singh Rane (Jan 1990 to March 1990), Churchill Alemao (Match 1990 to April 1990), Dr Luis Proto Barbosa (April 1990 to December 1990), Ravi Naik (Jan 1991 to May 93), Dr Wilfred de Souza (May 1993 to April 1994), Ravi Naik (April 1994 to April 1994) and Dr Wilfred de Souza (April 1994 to December 1994).

In the eighth assembly election in1994, the Congress captured maximum seats and Pratap Singh Rane became Chief Minister of the state who continued in power till July 1998. He was replaced by Dr Wilfred de Souza. On November 1998 he was replaced by Luizinho Faleiro who continued as the state Chief Minister till February 1999.
In June 1999 Luizinho  Faleiro was once again elected as CM. His tenure lasted for five months and was replaced by Francisco Sardinha.

BJP rule in Goa
Bharatiya Janta Party clinched power in the state in 2000. BJP leader Manohar Parrikar was the first IIT graduate to become the chief minister of any state in Indian. He continued in power from October 24, 2000 to February 27, 2002. After over three months of gap, Parrikar again resumed his innings as the Chief Minister of the state on June 5, 2002 after again winning majority in the state assembly.

On January 29, 2005, his government was reduced to minority after the resignation of four BJP MLAs. Parrikar claimed to have majority but he failed to prove it in the state assembly and stepped down in February 2005.
The state was put under president's rule in March 2005 after continued disputes. But in June 2005, opposition leader Pratap Singh Rane became new Chief Minister of the state after having convinced the state governor to have majority in his party’s favour in the assembly.

Present political scenario

In 2007 elections, no party could win absolute majority in the state assembly.  After maneuvering support of smaller parties like NCP, Congress secured majority in the 40-member state assembly and present Chief Minister Digambar Kamath became the Chief Minister of the state.
Following was the tally of parties after 2007 assembly elections- Congress- 16, BJP-14, NCP-03, MG-02, SGF-02, UGDP-01, OTH-02.