In many respects the vote has turned into a referendum on "Bibi" Netanyahu, in power for a total of nine years spread over three terms. If he wins again he would be on track to become Israel's longest-serving prime minister.
Netanyahu's campaign has focused on the threat from Iran's nuclear programme and the spread of militant Islam. But it's a message many Israelis say they are fed up with and as a result the centre-left's campaign on socio-economic issues, especially the high cost of living in Israel, appears to have won more traction with voters.
When the last opinion polls were published on March 13, the centre-left, known as the Zionist Union and led by Isaac Herzog, held a four-seat advantage over Netanyahu's right-wing Likud, a margin that had it set for a surprise victory.
But in the last three days of campaigning, Netanyahu went on a blitz to try to shore up his Likud base and attract votes from other right-wing, nationalist parties, promising more building of Jewish settlements and that the Palestinians would not get their own state if he were re-elected.
Those bold pledges, if carried out, would further isolate Israel from the United States and the European Union. But they may go some way towards convincing voters to plumb for what they know rather than others on the right.
Surveys show around 15 percent of voters are undecided, meaning the ballot could sway widely - opinion polls have rarely been a precise predictor of Israeli elections in the past.
Voting ends at 2200 local (2000 GMT) on Tuesday, with the first exit polls published immediately afterwards.
If Netanyahu can draw votes from other right-wing parties, he may be able to close the gap with the centre-left and be in a position to be asked first by Israel's president to try to form a governing coalition.
No party has ever won an outright majority in Israel's 67-year history, making coalition-building the norm. It is also an opaque and highly unpredictable game, with any number of allegiances possible among the 10 or 11 parties expected to win a place in the 120-seat parliament, the Knesset.

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