The experiments include blood samples for NASA's 'Twins Study', a unique research demonstration to understand the effects of long-duration space flight on astronauts and further NASA's use of personalised medicine in space.

Additional samples for the salivary markers and microbiome studies also returned to Earth. The landing in Kazakhstan wrapped up a 168-day mission for one cosmonaut and a brief 10-day visit for two, the US space agency said in a statement.

During their short time in orbit, they participated in a number of experiments on behalf of their respective space agencies, focusing on the areas of human research, Earth observation and technology development.

The specially designed overalls simulate gravitational forces from Earth by constricting the body from shoulders to feet. "Testing this clothing item in space may help astronauts with any back pain they experience on long-duration missions," NASA stated.

Samples from one rodent research study also returned as well. These types of experiments examine how microgravity affects animals, providing information relevant to human spaceflight, discoveries in basic biology and knowledge that will have direct impact toward human health on Earth.


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