The visit came exactly a year after he took power and is expected to further inflame the already-tense relations with China and South Korea, both of which are embroiled in territorial disputes with Japan. (Agencies)
Clad in a formal black swallow-tailed coat and a silver tie, Abe greeted kimono-clad officials at the shrine and entered the building just after 11:30 am (0230 GMT).
The shrine is the believed repository of around 2.5 million souls of Japan's war dead, most of them common soldiers, but also including several high-level officials executed for war crimes after World War II who were enshrined in the 1970s.
South Korea and China see it as a symbol of Tokyo's unrepentance and say that it represents a misguided view of its warmongering past.
Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida told reporters that the government hoped Abe's visit would not further affect ties.
"I understand that a politician's visit or a minister's visit to the shrine is a matter of his or her personal belief. Regardless, I believe we must avoid letting an affair as such develop into a political or diplomatic issue," he told reporters.
The last incumbent Japanese prime minister to visit the shrine was Junichiro Koizumi on August 15, 2006, the anniversary of Japan's defeat in 1945.
Several members of Abe’s Cabinet have been to the shrine over the last year, and have previously claimed they were doing so in a personal capacity.
However, China and South Korea, both victims of Japan's 20th century aggression, say no such distinction exists.
Abe did not visit the shrine during his first term as Prime Minister from 2006 to 2007, although later said that he felt ‘extremely remorseful’ for that.
In October about 160 Members of Parliament - approximately 20 percent of the nation's lawmakers – paid tribute at the shrine, including two Cabinet ministers, a move that drew a rebuke from China.
During a visit to the United States in May, Abe told a magazine that the shrine, seen throughout East Asia as a symbol of Japan's militarism, was a tribute to those ‘who lost their lives in the service of their country’ and compared it with US national cemetery at Arlington.
The visit came exactly a year after he took power and is expected to further inflame the already-tense relations with China and South Korea, both of which are embroiled in territorial disputes with Japan.