Bone density gets lower as people age; however, for women, the menopause constitutes a significant risk factor.     

Other risk factors of osteoporosis include low levels of physical activity, light body composition, smoking, low intake of calcium and vitamin D, as well as some drugs and medical conditions.
    
For instance, long-term stress associated with depression can have detrimental effects on metabolism and, in consequence, on bone health.
    
Subjective well-being is an extensive indicator of mental health and depression in particular, and in the new study, life satisfaction was used to measure subjective well-being.
    
Researchers at the University of Eastern Finland wanted to find out whether life satisfaction is associated with bone health.
    
The data was obtained from the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention (OSTPRE) Study, which has been investigating the effects of various risk and protective factors on bone density and bone fractures since 1989.
    
The study researchers said that promoting good life satisfaction and good spirits in the elderly is as important as promoting healthy lifestyle choices.
    
The findings were published in Psychosomatic Medicine.

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