Buhari, dressed in traditional Muslim attire, stood on the stage clutching a Koran in his right hand, as he pledged to uphold the constitution and laws of Africa's most populous nation.

Buhari has also vowed to spare no effort to defeat the Islamist Boko Haram militants who have killed thousands and displaced more than a million people in a six-year campaign to establish a caliphate in the northeast region abutting Lake Chad.

Befitting Buhari's modest personal and political style, there was little fanfare in the capital ahead of the swearing in, with security checkpoints leading to Abuja's Eagle Square and a few green and white national flags lining the main expressway.

About 30 countries sent high-level representatives for the ceremony, many from the rest of Africa, which stands to gain if Buhari is able to breathe new life into the economy and restore Abuja's diplomatic credibility and clout.

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