The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) launched on Friday at 11:27 pm (Saturday 0327 GMT) aboard a Minotaur V rocket, a converted peacekeeping missile, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia.
Since US astronauts last walked on the moon four decades ago, rocket scientists have learned that there is more to the Moon than just a dusty, desolate terrain.
Recent NASA robotic missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter have returned troves of images detailing the Moon's cratered surface, while NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) revealed how being pummelled by asteroids resulted in the Moon's uneven patches of gravity.
A previous NASA satellite, the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite(LCROSS) discovered water ice when it impacted in 2009, the space agency said.
"When we left the Moon we thought of it as an atmosphere-less ancient surface. We have discovered that the Moon is scientifically alive, it is still evolving and in fact has a kind of atmosphere," said John Grunsfeld, associate administrator for NASA's science mission directorate.
The Moon's atmosphere is so thin that its molecules do not collide, in what is known as an exosphere.
Exploring that exosphere will be a USD 280 million solar and lithium battery-powered spacecraft about the size of a small car, nearly eight feet (2.4 meters) tall and five feet (1.85 meters) wide.
After launch, LADEE aims to hurtle itself beyond Earth's orbit so it can circle the Moon, first cruising at a height of about 250 kilometers in just over a month, and then moving lower to 20 to 60 kilometers from the surface for the science portion of its mission.
It is carrying an Earth-to-Moon laser beam technology demonstration and three main tools, including a neutral mass spectrometer to measure chemical variations in the lunar atmosphere and other tools to analyze exosphere gasses and lunar dust grains, NASA said.
"These measurements will help scientists address longstanding mysteries, including: was lunar dust, electrically charged by solar ultraviolet light, responsible for the pre-sunrise horizon glow that the Apollo astronauts saw?" NASA said.
Other instruments will seek out water molecules in the lunar atmosphere.


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