"Punctuation is used and understood by texters to convey emotions and other social and pragmatic information. It's not surprising that as texting evolves, people are finding ways to convey the same types of information in their texts," said lead researcher Celia Klin.

The researchers recruited 126 undergraduates, who read a series of exchanges that appeared either as text messages or as handwritten notes.

In the 16 experimental exchanges, the sender's message contained a statement followed by an invitation phrased as a question (eg., Dave gave me his extra tickets. Wanna come?).The receiver's response was an affirmative one-word response (Okay, Sure, Yeah, Yup).There were two versions of each experimental exchange: one in which the receiver's response ended with a period and one in which it did not end with any punctuation.

Based on the participants' responses, text messages that ended with a period were rated as less sincere than text messages that did not end with a period. According to Klin, these results indicate that punctuation influences the perceived meaning of text messages.

Even though most of the important social and contextual cues were missing, the sincerity of the short messages was evaluated differently depending on the presence or absence of a period.

"Texting is lacking many of the social cues used in actual face-to-face conversations. When speaking, people easily convey social and emotional information with eye gaze, facial expressions, tone of voice, pauses, and so on," said Klin.

The study was published in the journal Computers in Human Behaviour.



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