The shooting down of the jet by the Turkish air force on Tuesday was one of the most serious clashes between a NATO member and Russia, and further complicated international efforts to battle Islamic State militants.

World leaders have urged both sides to avoid escalation. In an apparent attempt to cool the dispute and appeal to Western countries - Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu said in a letter to Britain's Times newspaper that Ankara would work with its allies and Russia to 'calm tensions'.

Earlier, Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev ordered his government to draw up measures that would include freezing some joint investment projects and restricting food imports from Turkey.

The Turkish foreign ministry said diplomatic missions and Turkish business interests in Russia had come under attack and said Russia's ambassador in Ankara had been summoned in protest.

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