The independence camp conceded that it had come up short.


"Like thousands of others across the country I've put my heart and soul into this campaign and there is a real sense of disappointment that we've fallen narrowly short of securing a yes vote," Scottish Nationalist Party deputy leader Nicola Sturgeon said.


"It looks as if it's not quite been enough and that's deeply disappointing," Sturgeon told the news channel.


Sterling rose sharply while unionist campaigners clapped, cheered and poured drinks as results were announced. Queen Elizabeth and Prime Minister David Cameron were expected to make statements later.

Though the nationalists won Scotland's biggest city, Glasgow, they failed to meet expectations in a clutch of other constituencies.


The campaign for independence had galvanised this country of 5.3 million but also divided friends and families from the remote Scottish islands of the Atlantic to the tough city estates of Glasgow.


Breaking apart the United Kingdom has worried allies, investors and the entire British elite whose leaders rushed late in the campaign to check what opinion polls showed was a surge in support for independence.


Seeking to tap into a cocktail of historical rivalry, opposing political tastes and a perception that London has mismanaged Scotland, nationalists say Scots, not London, should rule Scotland to build a wealthier and fairer country.


Unionists had warned independence would usher in financial, economic and political uncertainty and diminish the UK's standing in the world. They have warned that Scotland not to keep the pound as part of a formal currency union.


Beyond the money and power, the referendum has provoked deep passions in Scotland, drawn in many voters who ignore traditional political campaigns and underscored what London politicians admit is a need for wider constitutional change.


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