Researchers from Stanford University examined differences in reemployment by smoking status in a 12-month period in a group of 251 unemployed job seekers in San Francisco.
Among the 251 participants (131 daily smokers and 120 nonsmokers), 65.7 percent were men and they were an average age of 48, researchers said. Study participants were 38.2 percent white, 35.9 percent black, 9.6 percent Hispanic, 7.2 percent Asian and 9.2 percent were multiracial or other race, they said.

Among the job seekers, 31.1 percent had a college degree and 39.4 percent were unstably housed. The smokers consumed an average of 13.5 cigarettes per day at baseline.
There were 217 participants who completed 12-month follow-up surveys. Researchers found that 60 of 108 nonsmokers (55.6 percent) were reemployed compared with 29 of 109 smokers (26.6 percent). The results suggest nonsmokers were 30 per cent more likely on average to be reemployed at one year compared with smokers, researchers said.
Nonsmokers also earned more money. The hourly wage for smokers was about USD 5 less at an average of USD 15.10 per hour compared with USD 20.27 per hour for nonsmokers. At an average of 32 hours per week, this is a deficit of more than USD 8,300 annually, researchers said. The findings were published in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine.

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