Teenagers living with only their mother are 54 percent more likely to use alcohol and if they live only with their father, they are 58 percent more likely to smoke, the findings showed.

"Our study should re-emphasize the direction for practice and policy, for example, examining the elements in the family structure that are deemed protective and can enhance the well-being of children," said Eusebius Small, an assistant professor from the University of Texas at Arlington in US.

For the study, the researcher analyzed data encompassing 14,268 teenagers to determine the impact of family structure and parental education on adolescent substance use.

"Family structure and parental education had a more substantial influence on the well-being of teenagers than other factors such as gender, age or where the teen lived," Small concluded.

The study appeared in the journal Social Work in Public Health.

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