Toxins in lupin pollen cause  bumble bees to produce fewer offspring while chemicals found in  rhododendron nectar are toxic to honeybees but not bumble bees, toxic effects that could be contributing to the worrying decline in pollinator species, researchers said.
Professor Phillip Stevenson from the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and Natural Resources Institute at the University of Greenwich with colleagues from Trinity College Dublin studied the impact on bees of naturally-occurring toxins in lupin and rhododendron flowers.
Plants produce these chemicals in their leaves and stems as a defence against herbivorous insects such as aphids, but they can also accumulate in pollen and nectar and affect the behaviour of insect pollinators visiting the flowers.

In this study, bumble bees given pollen treated with lupanine, a chemical found in lupin plants, at natural concentrations produced fewer, smaller males.
The consequences could be severe where lupins are cultivated and present the major food source for bees at particular times of the year.
Other chemicals called diterpenoids, which are found in the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum, were found to be toxic to honeybees and a wild mining bee species (Andrena carantonica), but bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) were unharmed by the compounds.
The study shows how plant chemicals can work in beneficial ways. "Plant chemicals in nectar and pollen can mediate specialisation in pollinators, can drive plant pollinator interactions and can simply be toxic to pollinators where they have been selected for another purpose in the plant, such as defence against herbivores," Stevenson said.
The findings also highlight important considerations for landscape management of wild plants. Rhododendron ponticum is an invasive species and this study demonstrated that rhododendron toxins are poisonous to honeybees and mining bees.
"Where rhododendron dominates landscapes we know that this may be to the detriment of other plant species but now it seems it could also impact invertebrates as well," Stevenson said.

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