Majuli has shrunk as the river surrounding it has grown. The island had a total area of 1,250 square kilometres (483 sq mi), but having lost significantly to erosion it has an area of only 421.65 square kilometres (163 sq mi) in 2001.

The island is formed by the Brahmaputra river in the south and the Kherkutia Xuti, an anabranch of the Brahmaputra, joined by the Subansiri River in the north. The island was formed due to course changes by the river Brahmaputra and its tributaries, mainly the Lohit. Mājuli is also the abode of the Assamese neo-Vaisnavite culture.

Mājuli is a hotspot for flora and fauna, harbouring many rare and endangered fauna species including migratory birds that arrive in the winter season.

The island is under threat due to the extensive soil erosion on its banks. The reason for this magnitude in erosion is the large embankments built in neighbouring towns upriver to prevent erosion there during the monsoon season when the river distends its banks.

The upshot is a backlash of the tempestuous Brahmaputra's fury on the islet, eroding most of the area. According to reports, in 1853, the total area of Mājuli was 1,150 km² and about 33 percent of this landmass has been eroded in the latter half of 20th century. Since 1991, over 35 villages have been washed away. Surveys show that in 15–20 years from now, Mājuli would cease to exist.

However, to save the unique Island the Union Fertilizer and Chemical Minister Ananth Kumar last moth said Majuli will soon be upgraded to a tourist destination of the east and that several schemes for the development of the region have been taken up by the NDA Government led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

He said special thrust was given to keep alive the traditional, natural and the uniqueness of the island both culturally and geographically.

The minister also said for the declaration of Majuli as a 'World Heritage' site, his ministry had taken up special steps to give a real picture of the island in river Brahmaputra to UNESCO.

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